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Advanced Metering Infrastructural System

Advanced Metering Infrastructural System
  • Advanced Metering Infrastructural System
  • Advanced Metering Infrastructural System
  • Advanced Metering Infrastructural System
Smart Grid
Operations & Maintenance
Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is an integrated system of smart meters, communications networks, and data management systems that enable two-way communication between utilities and customers. AMI systems are comprised of state-of-the-art electronic/digital hardware and software, which combine interval data measurement with continuously available remote communications. These systems enable measurement of detailed, time-based information and frequent collection and transmittal of such information to various parties. AMI typically refers to the full measurement and collection system that includes meters at the customer site, communication networks between the customer and a service provider, such as an electric, gas or water utility and data reception and management systems that make the information available to the service provider.
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According to Global Industry Analysts: "The Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) market is expected to grow from USD 4.48 Billion in 2015 to USD 9.19 Billion by 2020, at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 15.5% during the forecast period. The deployment of AMI solutions enables energy utilities to align energy shortages, revenue protection, load management, and customer service improvement. With the growing energy needs in developing economies and improved customer service level and utility efficiency, the demand for AMI solutions and services has grown tremendously across all countries. Increasing adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) is driving this market. For the forecast period, the AMI analytics segment is expected to grow significantly. Presently, Europe is the largest market for AMI solutions and services." (Source: MarketsandMarkets)
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Business Value
How does this use case impact an organization’s performance? Example: Autonomous health care services reduce hospitalization costs.
Key objectives are improving utility services and visibility, enhancing the reliability of utility services and detecting utilities real-time consumption and usage outlets.
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Expected Benefits
What benefits do the individual users of the system expect to gain? Example: Users expect to have a lower likelihood of suffering a heart attack.
Benefits associated with AMI deployment according to the "Electric Power Research Institute" are: System Operation Benefits, Customer Service Benefits and Financial Benefits. 
System Operation Benefits- primarily associated with reduction in meter reads and associated management and administrative support, increased meter reading accuracy, improved utility asset management, easier energy theft detection, and easier outage management. 
Customer Service Benefits- primarily associated with early detection of meter failures, billing accuracy improvements, faster service restoration, flexible billing recycles, providing a variety of time-based rate options to customers, and creating customer energy profiles for targeting Energy Efficiency/Demand Response programs. 
Financial Benefits- these accrue to the utility from reduced equipment and equipment maintenance costs, reduced support expenses, faster restoration and shorter outages, and improvements in inventory management. 

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System Capabilities
What are the typical capabilities in this use case? Example: Automate routine health checkup procedures by remote monitoring.
A number of industries, such as telecommunications and commercial airlines, offer attractive off-peak rates to even out customer demand and prevent system overload. O&R's Time-Of-Use (TOU) electric rate is based on the same concept. By reducing the electric use during peak periods, it is possible to lower the annual energy costs, without reducing the overall amount of electricity used.
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Deployment Environment
Where is the ’edge’ of the solution deployed? Example: This use case is typically deployed at patient homes, local care centers, and hospitals.
For integration of every utility end user, customer homes need to be equipped with smart meters and an infrastructure that will support the AMI system. 
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Key Performance Indicators
How is the success of the system measured for users and for the business? Example: Percentage of heart unexpected heart attacks (heart attacks that occur without prior notification of a high probability by the system).
In order to measure progress in AMI systems, two KPI's are defined. These are namely: a) Number of advanced meters installed, b) Percentage of total demand served by advanced meters. These KPI's describe the penetration level of and the load that is served with advanced meter infrastructure. These allow to track the current implementation and evolution of these meters. 
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Performance Requirements
What are the performance expectations of a system user? Example: The system should send alerts that are easy to understand and difficult to miss.
In order to ensure correct and smooth data relay, the system in which the AMI will be installed should be able to maintain system-time synchronization across all devices to ensure accuracy of data. The system in question should support the interfacing with the future Smart Grid functionalities like outage management system, distribution automation including self-healing system, distribution transformer monitoring units, distributed energy resources. The communication network should preferably be able to support multiple applications. 
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What sensors are typically used to provide data into the IoT system, and which factors define their deployment? Example: Heart rate monitors can be worn externally, embedded in the patient’s chest, or used according to a schedule, depending upon the patient’s needs and preferences.
Sensors are used in this use case for tracking utility usage.
Source: (https://www.ferc.gov/CalendarFiles/20070423091846-EPRI%20-%20Advanced%20Metering.pdf)
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Cloud & Edge Platforms
What factors define the cloud and edge platforms used to integrate the solution? Example: Real-time edge analytics are essential to system performance.
Solutions to transfer the usage data in real-time to the utility provider.
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User Interface
What factors define the interfaces available to the system users? Example: Multiple users with different competency levels must receive different alerts.
Different kinds of user interfaces for the different kind of end users, e.g. accessible and user-friendly interface for the customer home solution.
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System Integration
What factors impact the integration of technologies into a cohesive system? Example: Patient privacy regulations strictly define how data can be transferred between components of the system.
Adapted to type of end user and related requirements. Depends on the exact type of AMI that is required as there are various options.
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What types of analysis are typically used to transform data into actionable information? Example: Three parameters are analyzed to predict the likelihood of a heart attack in the next six hours.
Meter data analytics plays a vital role in AMI system which helps utility to manage their resources and business process efficiently. Indigenously developed meter data analytics such as meter data validation, energy audit & accounting of distribution transformer, missing information, peak demand identification, consumer profile analysis, load forecasting, abnormal energy pattern analysis helps utilities through improved visualization and enhanced situational awareness. The analytics also help in providing better quality of service to consumers as well as empower them for better energy management.
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Power and Productivity for a Better World.
What factors define the trustworthiness of the solution? Example: Devices reside in multiple locations where they can be physically tampered with.
Cybersecurity of AMI is a discussed topic as the deployment of AMI's keep growing each year. There are several examples of how an attack may be conducted: An attacker may select any node and disrupt traffic on the AMI network. Attackers may also compromise a smart meter to change energy usage data or fabricate other meter data. 
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Perfection in Protection, Licensing and Security
What factors define the connectivity solutions used to provide both device-to-device and device-to-cloud communication? Example: High latency requirements.
Different AMI applications have different network and connectivity requirements- in terms of data payloads, sampling rates, latency and reliability. Generally, a multi-layer architecture is required. This architecture comprises: Home Area Network (HAN), Neighbourhood Area Network (NAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN). 
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What standards are relevant to this use case? Example: OPC UA.
AMI systems need to develop standard interfaces between systems, such as between the host AMI system and MDMS (Meter Data Management System), between MDMS and other utility data systems, as well as interfaces with other network and systems. 
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Data Sources
How is data obtained by the system? Example: Data is obtained from IoT devices that are worn by patients or used on a regular schedule, during scheduled and unscheduled checkups, and from the hospital’s existing databases.
Usage tracking sensor. Data is collected from the smart meters and sends the collected data to the utility center to be analyzed and stored.
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Data Requirements
What other requirements define data behavior? Example: Sensor data from patients must be available for analysis within 5 minutes, and must be stored for a minimum of three years.
Data must be transferred in real-time to enable pay-as-you-use payment systems with price adapted to time of day etc.
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Data Types
What data points are typically collected by the system? Example: Heart rate, temperature, medicine consumption time, REM sleep patterns, etc.
Various data types. 
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Data Volume
What volume of data is expected from each deployment, and from the system as a whole? Example: They typical patient will generate 100-500 GB of data annually but the use of video data can dramatically increase data volume. Systems may accommodate as few as 10,000 patients or as many as several million.
Depends on exact amount of usage.
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Business Challenges
What business challenges could impact deployment? Example: There may be disagreement among decision influencers regarding the business model.
There several business challenges on AMI and Smart Grid systems. The most important challenge is the infancy of the industry at this stage. Although the technology is already present and in fact has been regarded as consolidated in several cases, the manufacturers and vendors still struggle to make it visible. High capital costs are also another challenge for the industry as the costs to set up a system such as this can be quite steep.
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Integration Challenges
What integration challenges could impact deployment? Example: Linking new device data sources with existing data silos may be technically difficult and expensive.
AMI is a complex system of technologies that must be integrated with utilities' information technology systems, including Customer Information Systems (CIS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Outage Management Systems (OMS), Work Management (WMS), Mobile Workforce Management (MWM) and Distribution Automation System (DAS).
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Installation Challenges
What installation challenges could impact deployment? Example: Ensuring 99.9% connectivity uptime of sensor devices is challenging in home healthcare due to the lack of permanent staff on site.
Installation of the system depends on the exact existing infrastructure of the building/residential/business area.
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Regulatory Challenges
What regulatory challenges could impact deployment? Example: Different countries, states, and even cities may have unique policies regarding patient data privacy that would impact the analysis and transfer of data.
Depends on the governing body of the country. In the USA, overlapping federal, regional, state and municipal agencies create an impediment for adoption of AMI systems. Thus, the industry is neither fully regulated nor completely deregulated, which presents a regulatory challenge. 
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Organizational Challenges
What organizational challenges could impact deployment? Example: Stakeholders may seek to control the use of their data in order to maximize their leverage, thereby reducing the effectiveness of the system.
Since the industry is still at an early stage of development and that there are high costs associated with the AMI systems, not many organizations are willing to invest in this infrastructure at this point. Currently, "adoption" is a challenge in the organizational level. 
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